14. Basic Weight : Paper is grouped by its basis weight which is not only meant to put them to use for specific print material designed, but also to work out the cost of printing as well. The term paper weight not only restricts itself to printed stock, but also play useful part in determining the cost of the unprinted stock as the customers pay for paper based on its weight. The paper weight also tells us the Grammage of the paper expressed as GSM (Grams per Square Meter) both of which are inter related. GSM indicates the thickness of the paper. FOR MORE DETAILS READ UNDER GSM.
17. Bench Marking : Bench Marking means assessing the units efficiency to improve their working with other units whose efficiency in several factors are considered as the best practice followed in the industry.
In this respect the quality ISO certifications acquired by the industries gives them the best industry bench mark and whose practices are naturally compared for bench marking.
The general factors that determine the best working relates to the procedures followed by the most successful industry some of which are :
- Proper budgeting and accounting procedures to run the unit
- Planning the schedules much in advance and monitoring the results.
- Trimming the processes and procedures to be more responsive to customer demand and focus on superior customer service.
- Year by year reduction in expenditures and increase in efficiency by bringing continuous improvements in the working
- Modeling and optimization through development, integration and implementation to usage.
- The cost effectiveness in production by identifying the overlapping and repetitive exercises to cut down the expenditure to reduce the product cost
- Minimizing the manual work with mechanization and contracting in the areas possible.
- Integrating multiple locations together via a flexible Web interface for faster exchange of commands thereby reducing cycle times of the decisions from a couple of days to hours.
- Constant process measurement and report generation by a group to take corrective action on time.
- Standardizing and simplifying the work procedures
- Stream lining the Procurement procedures that reduce the cost
- Standardizing the products purchased.
- Spare parts management which reduces the cost
- Stricter Quality control measures that prevents wasteful inputs and rejections thereby reducing the cost
- Greater operational efficiency like deployment of minimum best workers and getting maximum outputs.
- Enhancing the efficiency of the workers by motivation and in-house trainings
- Re modeling the procedures to follow the best procedures noticed wherever it is possible to reduce wastage of time
- Safety measures including adhesion to the internationally accepted norms in environment safeguards by controlled discharge of wastes and effluents.
19. Bible paper : This variety of thin paper is manufactured with wood-free , low percentage of rag pulp with a low mass per unit area and with a high filler content so that even small prints will appear sharper. Bible paper must exhibit very good mechanical properties and high resistance to aging and are thin.
............Additions to alphabet B to be continued under B/3 later when compiled