10. Finished Size : Ultimate size of print that will be delivered after production is completed, as compared to unfinished size used for processing . In 90 % of the cases the printed paper is trimmed to the correct size after the printing is completed. However in some cases, the exact trimmed paper substance is used for printing such as visiting cards, greeting cards, invitations etc which are supplied in standard sizes.
11. Fixed Costs : Costs that remain constant regardless of how many nos are printed for a job. For example the costs incurred on Copyright fee, authors fee, preparation of manuscripts, copy writing and editing, % overhead to be charged, photography and designing etc which in effect are one time invested cost. Irrespective of how many copies are printed, those costs does not change.
12. Flat Color : Printing of a design with only one colour instead of printing multi colour is called flat color printing. This term also refers to the color that looks weak, faded or lifeless after printing.
14. Form Roller: The entire set of rollers that come in direct contact with the printing plate is called the form roller. The form rollers are of two types. In all printing processes except wet Offset printing, the rollers that feed ink to the plate is called form rollers for printing. In wet Offset printing, in addition to the inking form rollers, a set of felt covered rollers that dampens the plates are called dampening form rollers . The form rollers in the inking unit takes the thin film of ink from a series of intermediate rollers that draw the ink from the ink fountain, rotate along with the speed of the machine to grind them before supplying a uniform layer of ink to the form rollers. The form rollers do not directly take the ink from the ink fountain and draw the ink layer from the intermediate rollers. Similarly the form rollers in the dampening unit of the wet Offset printing machine gets dampened by the set of intermediate dampening rollers which draw the water from the dampening unit fountain solution and then supply water to the form rollers which then dampens the plate to resist the ink in the non printing areas.
15. Folding endurance or double fold testing : Term refers to one of the factors in paper testing. Fold endurance measures the durability of paper when repeatedly folded under constant load. Every paper sample is subjected to the folding endurance test with various kinds of testing equipments which is available in the market. The basic principle in testing is that a specific width and length of the sample paper to be tested is fastened to the equipment which has provision to hold it firmly. Then at a specific length the paper ( The universally accepted general norm is 15 mm wide and 100 mm length paper strip ) is made to get folded both ways by 270o angle by swinging the part which holds the paper. The swinging will continue till the paper develops cracks at the folded edge to indicate the folding endurance factor. In this manner the paper sample will be double folded and unfolded several times till it begins to tear under standard conditions. This test is important to those documents which are quite frequently handled such as Currencies and Bank notes, Maps, Archival documents, Wrapping papers etc Folding endurance tests have been used for the estimation of the suitability of paper in use to withstand repeated bending, folding, and creasing. In short we may say that the Folding endurance is the paper's capability of withstanding multiple folds before it breaks. Folding test is also important for carton, box boards, ammonia print paper, and cover paper etc. Folding test is also an indicator for aging properties of paper as the frequent usage of the books in the libraries tend to degrade the paper fiber.
16. Fountain : A Tray or a Trough or a Container that holds fluids such as ink, varnish or water in a printing machine . This is also called a duct. Every printing machine irrespective of the process used will have a duct containing some fluid material required for the machine as stated above. In short the duct is the main supply base of such fluid material. While machines like Letterpress, Dry Offset, Intaglio, Gravure, Flexography has ink ducts, the wet Offset will have additionally a water duct that supply water to the dampening rollers.
17. Fountain Solution : Mixture of water and chemicals that aids effective dampening of the printing plate to prevent ink from adhering to the non image area. Such water based chemicals will be called dampener solution and such arrangement is found only in the Wet Offset printing process. In the Intaglio printing process too some solution similar to fountain solution like caustic soda-castor oil combination is provided in a tank from which a wiping cylinder in contact with the plate cylinder clean the non image areas.
18. Flying and Misting : A spray or mist of ink is visible in the air around the printing machine which eventually settles, covering the machine in a thin film of ink. This may be the result of defective ink, the high speed of the machine in general and emulsified ink in wet offset printing.
............Additions to alphabet F to be continued under F/3