Alphabet L / 3

17. Linter pulp : This refers to ready made Cotton pulp sheets and ready to use cotton pulp cakes for hand made paper and other good quality making. The said items are mixture of short or rejected cotton fibers from the paper mills or from the go-downs, re-pulped good white paper trimmings and other fibers . The said mixture is crushed to pulp and processed with some chemicals to clean them . The mixture is then made in cake form or thick sheets so that they can be readily added in some proportions with the good pulp in the paper mills for processing good paper. The linter pulp made paper will be smooth and durable , but will cause some amount of fluff problem on Offset machines during printing as the undissolved specks in the re-pulp linter cakes will embed into the surface of the paper and gets released with sticky inks under pressure on the printing machines. The mixture material will not contain printed sheet if it is meant for making white printing paper. However the trimmings of printed sheets will be processed if it is meant for making hand made paper . adding some proportion of linter pulp cakes with the good pulp in the paper making process reduces the overall cost of paper making. Hence this is used by some manufacturers.
18. Ledger Paper : This paper called record keeping paper or Ledger paper is slightly dull greenish in colour and will have high strength, strong surface to withstand rubbings with eraser and smooth enough to take ink pen writings and prints. They were primarily meant for making registers for keeping business records. They are also meant to print important documents such as stamp paper, wills, deeds etc . Besides, they are also used as registry and legal papers for recording the proceedings as used in the registrar office, history sheets and account books. The Ledger paper is made in slightly greenish shade to give special identity to the paper. The ledger papers were initially made in standard size of 17” x 22” to facilitate making Ledgers, and other documentary papers which were also standardized in sizes.
Lightweight Paper: Any paper used for stationery printing or book printing having less than 40 Gsm thick is called light weight paper. Initially they were used for printing Bible, low priced story books, reprints of books, duplicate/ triplicates in receipt and invoice books etc. Now low priced and low cost voluminous books are printed with light weight papers as they work out cheaper and easy to handle. News paper stationery falls under this category of light weight papers.
19. Logo/ logotype : The term identifies a specific symbol for specific cause or firm or an activity, which can not be used by others or for other purposes. The origin of Logos came from the use of special character fonts used in hand composing such as © ® TM ✩ and certain standard images used in the printed marriage invitations as supplied by the foundries along with the metal fonts. Each image supplied by the foundries as logo fonts were meant to convey certain message or cause. Therefore based on the said analogy some design elements came to be created by the firms to exclusively project them or their activities.

20. Laser printing: Printing by special printer that utilizes a laser beam to produce an image on a drum by electro photographic method to print a full page at a time. This is extension of Xerox printing process, the difference being that the process of transferring the image required to be printed is carried out by the laser beams.
The principle of laser printing is very simple. A steel drum is electro statically charged and the image is transferred by the laser beams through a photo lens fitted inside the machine. The beam attacks the non image areas of the charged drum surface. When the image areas remain un affected the non image areas in the electro statically charged drum fuses thus getting the static removed from its surface on those areas. The electro statically charged drum then rotates and contacts the ink drum. The areas where the static still remained intact, attracts the toner into their areas. As the drum with the toner rotates further, it contacts the paper when the static with toner image on the drum gets released on to the paper surface. Immediately due to combination of the heat and pressure the image (toner) on the surface of he paper gets fused and cause the print to appear. Laser printers can easily produce images with resolutions from 1000 to 2500 dpi (dots per inch) and can produce higher quality prints. The speed will be much higher and quick jobs, even multi colours can be printed by Laser printers. The main disadvantage of the Laser printer is that it needs a Computer to transfer the images . If the paper is slightly damp it will not properly transfer the images and the printer can cause paper jam. 

The following illustrations will give
an idea on the principle of  Laser printing

21. Lino type : The Lino type machine composing is the oldest composing process where in the machine was attached to hot melting mould that produced a solid line of metal type rather than as individual characters and hence derived the name line of type to get nick name Lino Type. It was also known as line casting machine. When the Letterpress printing process was much in demand during earlier era of printing, especially the News paper and magazine printing establishments extensively used the Lino type machine for composing the matter instead of hand composing which was time consuming process. The Lino type and another machine composing system called Mono type composing machines were subsequently replaced by Photo composing machines . The machine was operated with 90 Character key board to compose the matter. 

To read more on Lino type click the link below

............Additions to alphabet L to be continued under L/3