Alphabet -P /2

7. Page proof: Every printed material whether book, circular, pamphlet, leaflet or any other print material will have some text material or some images. The first task of book printing is to compose the text material or the manuscripts into a printable format. Once the matter is composed, the composed matter will have to be corrected for mistakes if any to match with the original manuscript or copy. First the running matter with headings, sub headings etc may belong to a book material that contain several pages  and the second is those print material that require images to be incorporated. Therefore in such cases it is customary to first make corrections on the composed text material and compare it with the original for making corrections if any. This is done in two stages. When such  books are printed by letterpress printing, the composed matter will be submitted for correction in the form of galley proof, i.e without any pagination. In the case of Offset printing also such a proof will be submitted, but they are not called Galley proofs. The proofs may be in the form of pages but not numbered.  Once the entire composed matter is proof read in both the cases, the corrections will be carried out and a revise proof will be submitted. Only after the  revised proof is proof read and corrected, the matter will be laid out in page form incorporating images wherever necessary. This process is called pagination and once pagination  is completed, then the paginated proofs will be given for proof reading to ensure that each page is in continuation with the previous page. The copy thus  given in page form  is called the Page proof. 
8. Proof Readers Marks: Whenever some manuscript is taken up for printing, they are to be first composed by some means- hand composing for letterpress printing, mechanical or cold composing ( with electronic typewriters-, or by photo processor like word processing or in some other means of type setting including on computers for Offset or Flexographic printing. Once the manuscript is composed and made ready, the errors and mistakes in the composed matter  like spell mistakes, missing words or letters, missing parts, insertion of suitable symbols in appropriate places, paragraphs beginning and end etc are to be detected and indicated for corrections.  For this purpose the print proofs will be supplied to the person, called Proof Reader who will go through the submitted proofs and indicate the errors in simple code which are universally understood by the typesetters and accepted as Proof Readers Marks. Each and every correction can not be explained in writing which will be time consuming and not possible. Therefore certain simple marks have been created as Proof Readers Marks to communicate between the person showing the correction and the compositors who will  make the corrections, in the manner understandable to both regardless of their background. The marks are sweet and  short and understood by the compositors and typesetters to effect the corrections. The marks thus indicated in the proofs in Pre-press operation to  make necessary correction are called  Proof Readers Marks

9. Parchment: There are two varieties of Parchment papers in use. One is used in the printing industry for printing special  print material such as  Awards, Certificates, Business cards, Menus in the restaurants’, Poetry books, and several such rare and unique print material. The printing is sometimes done  in conjunction with calligraphy and ornate script fonts to give antique look. The Parchment paper used for such work will be thick, tough and design embedded as most of them are hand made papers. 
Earlier parchment papers in 15th centuries were made out of the skin of certain animals like calf, goat, or sheep. Subsequently instead of animal skin plant based parchment papers came into being. The plant made Parchment Paper is made from fir trees or plants such as cotton or flax or alpha cellulose, known as water leaf, which contains no sizing or filling materials. The pulp is treated with sulfuric acid converting a part of the cellulose into a gelatin-like colloidal. When the sulfuric acid is washed off, the colloidal film hardens on the paper. The strength of the paper thus gets increased and will not disintegrate even when fully wet. The finer variety of Parchment paper is called Vellum. Vellum is Latin word meaning made from calf , and a thin skin material thus  prepared was used for writing or printing single pages, scrolls, or rare manuscripts books, Bible etc in medieval periods. Since the Parchment paper made with animal skins were not weatherproof, the books printed on with parchment pages were bound with strong wooden boards as cover and kept firmly clamped by metal caps to keep the pages remain flat to prevent them getting distorted due to humidity changes. Now similar paper is manufactured treating the cellulose fibers with sulfuric acid to make them weather proof. Because the paper is thicker and has a non uniform textured surface, printing will have  to be done with care to achieve good results.  Another variety of siliconised Parchment paper is also in use for packing baked products, cooking or food packaging as they withstand high temperatures, and are grease and moisture resistant. The said quality Parchment paper is coated with a nonstick material, typically silicone, to give them nonstick properties.  

10. Panchromatic (Films): The word Panchromatic refers to  films that are sensitive to all wavelengths of the spectrum. Two types of films are available, both Panchromatic in nature. They are Panchromatic films meant for photographic purposes and the other Panchromatic films for Graphic arts process. While both are important in the field of printing, the Graphic arts film is more important for Printing presses. The Panchromatic films are required to make color separated negatives and positives to make printing plates to reproduce the colored original in print form. The colour separated negatives or positives are made using different colour filters to control the imaging on the Panchromatic film.  Unlike Orthochromatic films which are sensitive to all colours except Red, the Panchromatic Film is sensitive to all colors including Red.  In the case of Graphic arts films after exposure when the film is developed, one can find the recorded images represented in greys and blacks instead of  in color while in the Photographic Panchromatic films the recorded images will be in actual colors.   In  Graphic arts Panchromatic films, the densities of gray can range from dense to lightest as they depend upon the brightness of the the  color in the original and the color sensitivity of the film used. Several Photographic film makers like Agfa, Gevaert, Fuji, Orwo, Ilford, Kodak, DuPont, Fomapan and some more firms  produce the films in sheet form and as Glass plate films for use in Graphic arts industry. 

11. Paste Drier: The inks dry generally by three major processes such as Oxidation, Polymerization and Penetration. There are two types of driers available for adding with the ink to aid drying of the inks on the printed stocks. They are Liquid drier and Paste drier. Amongst the two, a compound in the form of a paste that is added with the inks to accelerate the drying process is called Paste Drier. The Paste drier contains some metallic portions such as Cobalt, Manganese, or Lead  along with some liquid form of resin or oil. The Paste drier act as catalyst to increase the speed of drying along with Oxidation and Polymerization process. If excessive proportion of Paste drier is added, that may cause some of the printing problems. Therefore care may have to be taken to add suitable proportion of the driers in consultation with the ink maker . 12. 12. Perfect Bind or perfect binding: A technique of binding the books with some strong adhesive like glue, Fevicol etc and to fix the outer cover on them.  The edges of the books will not be stitched or threaded, instead they will be tightly held and glued or some strong adhesives applied on their back and  the edges in such a manner that the glue or the adhesive intrude slightly into the book edges and hold them firmly without allowing the loose leaves to fall. Perfect binding is not a stitch binding , but a solely adhesive based binding. 
How is it done? The printed books or pages will be first well jogged to keep the back edge straight and in level. The well jogged books or pages will be clamped on the clamping machine and edges applied with glue or some adhesive and allowed to dry. Thereafter, they are taken out, and cover material pasted on the book covering the back of the book as well. Finally the book will be trimmed on all the other three sides to complete the process. Paperback novels are one example of perfect binding. Other books that are bound in this manner includes Booklets, telephone directories, Periodicals and some Magazines that are several inches thick. This binding is also called Lay Flat Binding because the books can be opened fully up to the back edge.  This kind of binding  can be quickly and easily done and the binding is durable too.