5. Web Break:
In the Web printing machine paper reel will be loaded for printing.
They will be loaded for printing taking into consideration the elasticity of
paper. The web tension will be set accordingly to ensure that the reel runs smoothly
from end to end. While the printing is underway, some times the reel
may break and stop printing. The reasons may be many such as web or
reel tension set between feeder to delivery end may be faulty, too much
thickness variation in the Paper reel where the thin or weak portions
can not withstand the web tension set, ripples, holes, wrinkles, wander
or tear in the mid or edges of reel, impression pressure between plate
and impression cylinders too high or sudden jerk due to voltage fluctuation, too
much tacky ink etc, etc. In bigger machines and sophisticated
presses, the web printing machines will be attached with Web break
detector, which will instantly indicate the location of the breaks so
that quickly it can be attended thus minimizing down time.
6. Wire side of Paper:
Every paper manufactured has two sides. When the pulp pass over the
wire mesh to form sheet of paper, however smoother the wire mesh may be,
due to the wire mesh inherent structure, the side of paper on mesh will have roughness compared to the top side of the paper. Thus the bottom
side of the paper that is in contact with the wire mesh during manufacture is called Wire side which will be slightly rougher and
the top side which will be smoother as Felt side. However on coated
paper the sides can not be distinguished. In the non coated paper,
generally the felt side is preferred for printing as it will have smooth
surface. Even on those coated papers which have water mark, the readable side
of the mark will be felt side and the reverse of the mark side will be the wire
7. Wood free Paper :
The Paper is made of Cotton Rags, Cellulose fibers, hemp, esparto,
other grasses like bagasse (the fibrous plant) and wood or straw. The paper made without wood in the pulp is called mechanical pulp. Those manufactured purely with chemical pulp i.e cellulose fibers are called Wood Free Paper.
The wood contains both cellulose fibers and wooden lignin (a natural component like polymers of the cell walls of the plants) which is
naturally inherent in the secondary part of the wood. Though wood is
crushed before adding with pulp, most of the lignin
is removed allowing only the cellulose fibers in the pulp during the bleaching of the pulp. The lignin is
removed during bleaching process so that the paper manufactured do not
turn yellowish in long run. The Newspapers, paperback books and some
magazines whose paper will be duller in color are made from paper using
mechanical wood i.e paper made without removing the lignin.
8. Wire Stitching:
One of the binding techniques like thread stitching and sewing of
books. Wire stitching means fastening the loose leaves of the book with a
half an inch or so length steel wires. This is a faster way of
fastening the sheets compared to the thread stitching. Most of the
weekly and monthly magazines are wire stitched. The wire stitching is
carried either at the spine or a few mm away from the back edges of the
book. The wire stitching done on the back edge of the book is called
side stitching. Two varieties of wires are available for stitching.
One is round shaped and the other flat shaped to suit different types of
books or magazines. Generally where the books or note books are wire
stitched in spine- saddle stitching- they will use round shaped wires. Where the stitching
is done on the back edge of the books and magazines or card board boxes
–side stitching- the wires are flat shaped. This is done to keep
the wires lie flat on the surface so that when they are packed the
edges will not be bulgy compared to the front edge.
9. Warm colour : In
color theory there are two groups of colors. They are termed as Warm
and Cool Colors. It is generally stated that the color is indicative of
the mood. Certain colors are very bright and some are sober. The bright
or Warm Colors are Red, Orange, Yellow etc which reflect light or fire.
Warm means bit hot. When fire is lit colors like Yellow, Orange and
Red flames can be seen. Therefore the brighter colors are grouped as
Warm Colors and lighter colors as Cool colors. The Cool colors are Blue,
Green, Purple and Magenta etc which has blue tinge on them.
10. Wrong Font:
In typography while composing the matter, by mistake instead of the
same font, one or two fonts of some other type may appear in the words.
Such non uniform fonts are called wrong fonts. This happens generally
when after the matter is printed, and the fonts are distributed
back into their boxes the fonts may be put into the wrong boxes which gets
mixed up by mistake.
11. Web Printing: The
Printing machine which can print only on continuous rolls of paper and
even in emergency trimmed sheets can not be fed into the machine as the
configuration of the machine has been designed so. The Web printing
machines are attached with sheet converters which can trim the paper to
individual sheet size during delivery after printing. The machine is
also equipped to slit the bigger rolls to smaller size rolls and then
wind them in delivery instead of delivering as single sheets. The Web
printing machines can both print one or both sides and are mainly used
for News paper printing, high volume printing magazines, Label printing
and in Flexographic units where the cartons are printed for packing
purposes. The Web machines print much faster than sheet fed presses.
Read an interesting article on Web Break in the following site :
alphabet W to be continued under W/2