The published articles are meant to primarily educate the students in printing to supplement their knowledge in the field of Printing. These are not simple Glossary of printing terms, but to the extent possible every term has been explained in brief so that it can be of some use to the students who appear in some sort of examinations and interviews.
I served the Printing Industry for over 40 years
in various capacities, a major part in an Security Printing Organization. In order not to waste the printing and paper related knowledge which I gained over years, I decided to keep them in public domain for the reason stated in prepara. Most of the illustrations - over 90% - have been generated by me to explain the terms suitably.
While I am not sure to what extent the published content will help, if the content is going to be of use to some one in some manner, I will be greatly satisfied.
Your views may be sent to me ( for my record and correction wherever needed.



- Over 400 terms-

Click on this line to read from 'A'

Friday, December 14, 2012

Organization and Management Project or Feasibility reports - 7

Organization and Management
Project or  Feasibility reports


(Written by  N. R.  Jayaraman)

One of the most important chapter in the Project Reports will be the activities chart. They will contain Capital expenditure, Recurring expenditure, Phased expenditure etc. The Project Report will also list out heading wise the complete and  important Raw material, chemicals, process materials and other small equipments and accessories needed for the Organisation. 
One other important chapter will be the man power to be positioned in each area, their designations, job descriptions, the phased manner in which they will be enrolled, their pay structure etc.  
The general format of the Project  / Feasibility Report for an Organization has been broadly discussed. The points given in the seven Chapters are only guiding notes.

- Concluded -

Thursday, December 13, 2012

Organization and Management Project or Feasibility reports - 6

Organization and Management

Project or  Feasibility reports


(Written by  N. R.  Jayaraman)

How do the product rates are calculated and reflected in the reports?
Generally the following formula, which is an illustrative model is adapted. These may undergo some changes depending on the type and structure of Organizations.
Cost analysis- Fixing up the initial sales price by approximation method for the product However the actual costing will be done based on actual consumption later.
Cost Analysis

How do the machine hourly rates calculated and reflected ? Generally the following formula, which is an illustrative model per machine is adapted.

Machine Hourly rates  

The above calculation is only a suggestive figure for ex no of production targeted per day. However if the production goes up within the same stipulated hours the recovery period or break even point of the investment will fall down drastically by several years below 10 years anticipated. Depending upon the mass consumption products, and high sale value products the manufacturers may keep high margin of profit and recover the cost in less than 5 years.
One question may be asked. whether the low cost machineries and equipments will be worked out in the same manner and cost recovered in 10 years as suggested above? No the manufacturers keep high margin of profit and recover the cost in less than 5 years.
.........To be continued

Wednesday, December 12, 2012

Organization and Management Project or Feasibility reports -5

Organization and Management

Project or  Feasibility reports


(Written by  N. R.  Jayaraman)

Remember one important aspect in Project Reports now being discussed. All the Project Reports may not be same. They differ on subjects. What we are discussing is Project Reports for Production oriented industries where machineries and equipments are involved. However for non productive Organizations which may be service oriented, the production norms, machine output and output analysis will not form part of the reports. They may merely discuss and narrate the manpower requirement, their duties and sundry equipments and tabletop machineries including several computers to perform various activities which can not be quantified. Those Project Reports will be totally different than the one which is now being discussed. How the Project reports normally highlight the norms and other factors in a particular fashion are given to understand the subject. 

Production Norms
 Manpower deployment
on Machines

Output Analysis
How do the Capacity and Output prescribed for the machineries and equipments in a newly formed Organization? The Project report generally indicates the approximate x unit production initially by calculating in the following manner:
‘’Fixing up the initial capacity by approximation method based on the suppliers advice or as indicated in the quotations received for the product and then carry out the exercise based on actual production achieved over a period of six months. By alternative techniques wherever feasible the output norms are revised to fix new targets’’.
The Project reporters generally keep some such production data. How the approximation method is calculated? See the following illustrative example to understand approximation method for fixing minimum-maximum production range.
Let us take the case of Printing machine production. Supposing a printing machines runs at a rated speed of say 6000 Impressions per hour and it works for 8 hours shift. For one year it will theoretically produce 6000 sheets per hour x 8 hours x 365 days = 17520000 i.e sheets. 
Can this figure be taken as authentic production achievable figure? No, this is only theoretical calculation used as a base for calculation of actual.
Out of 365 days in an year the effective available days for working will be only 261 days for Govt organizations after deducting around 104 days of Saturdays and Sundays per annum as holidays (365-104=261). Further deducting officially declared holidays of 14 to 15 days the available working day shrinks to 261-15= 246 days. This thus brings down to the theoretical achievable production to :
246 days x 8 hours x 6000 sheets per hour = 11808000 sheets. 
However this figure too is not correct. Reason?
Even if the machine works in 8 hours shift generally the machine make ready time before machine start up and closing break for lunch and machine cleaning time in the evening takes away roughly two hours in 8 hour shift. During machine running another one hour may be wasted everyday on account of machine mal function, production related problems etc and therefore effectively one can work effectively only 5 hours in a shift of 8 hours. This thus puts the effective production achievable to :
246 days x 5 hours per shift x 6000 sheets per hour = 7380000 sheets (42%)This thus indicates only 42 % achievable production against the theoretical working figure (7380000 ÷ 17520000 x 100 =42%) in a Govt set up while the same may be higher in the non Governmental Organization.
In non Governmental Organization the production may go up to 57 % as they have only one weekly holiday (365-50=315-10 holidays per annum = 305 days) and daily downtime (8-2.5=5.5 hours) will be drastically reduced with certain stricter norms. We can therefore rate the output in such units to the following:
305 days x 5.5 hours per shift x 6000 sheets per hour = 10065000 sheets  (57%)
Now the question will be which one is the correct production achievable figure?
42% =7380000 sheets
57% = 10065000 sheets

Taking both scenario into consideration the minimum output per machine initially may be fixed at 8722500 sheets (7380000 sheets + 10065000 sheets ÷ 2 = 8722500) per annum consisting of 275 working days ( 246 + 305 = 551 ÷ 2 = 275 days) i.e 49.5% achievable production against the theoretical working figure at 8 hour shift working.
This figure will be reviewed after one year production related problems and scopes for improvement, worker efficiency, machine speed adjustments etc. It will be easier to calculate the norms in the above manner for machineries and equipments which produce the finished product in one go while the other processes like quality check, packing etc -which may be carried out in manual process- will follow later which may be manual operation with separate norms. In the above manner after fixing up the initial norms per machine and per person the actual norms to be established will be done by observing the production activities in the next few months.
However it will be difficult task to fix the norms for machineries and equipments while manufacturing a finished product with combination of few parts of different nature. It will not be possible to fix the norms like the above example of printing machines. It will be done in a different manner. The general formula to fix the targets in such cases may be given in the Project reports almost in the following manner:
Final out put per day with one machine in each variety as mentioned above it may be possible to produce maximum four products in 8 hour shift.  

 ............To be Continued

Tuesday, December 11, 2012

Organization and Management Project or Feasibility reports -4

 Organization and Management

Project or  Feasibility reports


(Written by  N. R.  Jayaraman)

 Some of the topics which may be covered in the Project Report includes the following: 

Main Functional Heads
for any Organization

Based on the standard duties existing everywhere 
as shown below, the Project report will specify the designations and act to be performed by the proposed group of personnel as reflected in the report
1. Head - Administration : He is responsible for the overall control of the Organization including that of the plant and machineries and keeps communicating at various levels to ensure trouble free productive activities. He is responsible for maintaining industrial peace and harmony in addition to discipline and keep track of all actions taken to curb unlawful activities which may disturb plant climate thus affecting productivity.
2. Head - Finance and Accts : He is responsible for the overall control of the financial matters in the Organization and monitor all aspects of banking and other transactions including that of loans if any or fund raising etc. He keep track of the supply and receipt position visa-a-vise payments made and received. Responsible Cost Analysis, profit and loss accounts, budgeting and every aspect concerning finances such as payments and receipts, payments to staff and worker, payments to contractors etc. The functions are almost same in any Organization.
3. Head- Personnel : He is another crucial facilitator to ensure that the personnel in the Organization is utilized as efficiently as possible for productive activities. He is responsible for staff and workmen recruitment, imparting in-plant training schemes to staff and workmen, ensure deployment of employees for better efficiency, resolve disputes, by various means enhance the skills of staff and workmen, and contain discontents if any.
4. Head -Procurement : In any organization head of the procurement wing plays important and crucial role to ensure that quality raw material is procured on time to meet the production demand, procure cheaper material without scarifying quality aspects , search suitable alternative vendors to supply quality material at very competitive pricing, and standardize the procurement procedures in the most simplified manner so that even a newly joined cadre can easily perform his function in a smooth transition.
5. Head –Production: He is supposed to be technically knowledgeable in all process under his control, instrumental in ensuring targeted production and acts as that of a bridge between plant personnel and administration. His tact is responsible for smooth flow of production. Should be able to troubleshoot the problem, maintain inventory control of the departments under his control.
6. Head- Quality control : In many plants there may not be separate quality control department. The person responsible for production is supposed to control quality. However where a separate manager is positioned for quality control, his duties include the frequent checking and analysis of the materials used for production. He has to frequently check both the input material and the output product and ensure that there is no quality drift in the end product. He regularly interact with production department personnel. Based on his experience and inspection of output product, he may monitor specification changes wherever it is necessary.
7. Manager-Sales : He is another important cadre who will be responsible for the market survey for boosting the sales, analyze the sales trend, interact with production group to adjust production schedules to meet the market demand and supply , advise on pricing wherever necessary suggest new applications on their products, search new avenues for sales promotion etc. He is also responsible for dispatches in timely manner.
*In some of the Organizations which produce multiple products separate department with a head for dispatch is positioned whose duties and responsibilities will be to liaise effectively with that of Sales and productive divisional managers to ensure proper and orderly dispatches. The responsibilities of this person may be separately laid down based on the structural form of the Organization.
8. Supervisors, other staff and the workmen : Since the duties of the Supervisors, other staff and the workmen differs from Organization to Organization in view of the specialization required to man specific machineries and equipments, their strength, designation, duties and other responsibilities will be provided in the Project Report based on the kind of machineries and equipments suggested for purchase to meet the production activities. Designation wise duties will be usually indicated in the reports. 
..........To be continued