The published articles are meant to primarily educate the students in printing to supplement their knowledge in the field of Printing. These are not simple Glossary of printing terms, but to the extent possible every term has been explained in brief so that it can be of some use to the students who appear in some sort of examinations and interviews.
I served the Printing Industry for over 40 years
in various capacities, a major part in an Security Printing Organization. In order not to waste the printing and paper related knowledge which I gained over years, I decided to keep them in public domain for the reason stated in prepara. Most of the illustrations - over 90% - have been generated by me to explain the terms suitably.
While I am not sure to what extent the published content will help, if the content is going to be of use to some one in some manner, I will be greatly satisfied.
Your views may be sent to me ( for my record and correction wherever needed.



- Over 400 terms-

Click on this line to read from 'A'

Tuesday, December 31, 2013

Star Series Bank Notes

Star Series Bank Notes
(Written by N.R. Jayaraman )

Some interesting information on Bank Notes:-  
The bank notes issued by the Reserve Bank of India are in packets of 100s. The earlier practice of stapling the 100 note packs - carried out since introduction of the Bank Notes - have  been discarded two decades ago  as they cannot be used for dispensing the notes by ATM. Also the life of the stapled notes were far less than the non stapled notes.  Similarly one more deviation in  the usual practice was introduced by RBI by introducing Star Series Notes. 

 The Bank Note production process is complicated and involves several procedures and steps. One of the standard practices followed universally is to issue the  bank notes in bundles of 100 notes, each 100 notes placed in sequential serial order beginning from one particular no. During the production process especially during  numbering process, as is normal in any other printing process, some sheets get printed with some unforeseen, unavoidable  printing errors called 'numbering defects' thus disturbing the continuity  and therefore they have  to be replaced. 

The Process, Paper and Inks used for Bank Note Printing being costly, the entire defective sheet containing defective/ wrong numbers in one or two notes in  whole sheet cannot be expected to be destroyed  totally.  Moreover in order to simply replace few defectively numbered notes the entire process cannot be redone to get correct  serial numbered note because the process is  time consuming and also involve additional cost. This is not the case in India alone but is universally faced phenomenon.  

Therefore in  order to reduce the cost  a new practice was introduced  to issue specially numbered notes called 'Star Series' which will not have sequentially numbered serials in a bundle of 100 notes.  Such Star Series  notes were inserted replacing the defective notes in the bundles containing  100 nos of serialized notes. The Star Series note bundles  though will contain 100 notes per packet may not have sequential serial   beginning from a particular number and may contain one or two Star Series numbered note s  in  between.
The Star Series Notes will be printed with a special mark like a Star symbol  in  suitable place in the numbering panel to identify that the 100 note packet is Star Series numbered notes. Since no two serial numbers can remain  the same, the note is simply printed with a  Star mark symbol in the serial number panel, identifying it as a replacement for an error notes. 

For example in a bundle of 100 notes, there may be few wrongly numbered  notes, say, from 97 BA 552701 to 97 BA 552710 one note may have been wrongly numbered and need to be replaced. The replaced note  will be something like the one  illustrated below: 

The Bank Notes issued by RBI prior to 2006 were in sequential number. No bundle had discontinued serial number. In this process whenever the  notes were seen to contain wrong  numbers they were separately printed and inserted in the bundles of 100 notes replacing  the defective numbered notes.  This process was time consuming, involved several avoidable and repeated process cycle in addition to  increase the cost of printing.  
However as the said process continued  over the years,  keeping pace with international best practices, in India too the Reserve Bank too commenced issue of 'star' series of bank notes from 2006 in various denominations like Rs 10, Rs 20 and Rs 50. RBI adopted  Star Series numbering system for replacement of defectively printed banknotes.  
The Star series banknotes were exactly similar to  the existing  Mahatma Gandhi Series banknotes, but with an additional character say a star symbol like * in the number panel in the space between the prefix (Two Alphabets printed followed by numerals) and the serial number. The 100 note  packets containing those bank notes will not have sequential serial numbers, but contain 100 banknotes, as usual. To facilitate easy identification of the bundles that carry star series notes, the paper bands that are fastened on 100 notes bundle carried captions like ''contains non serially numbered notes'' . 

Some of the other countries that introduced star series notes were the following:
  1. The United States  and Australia used  "*" in the serial number to mark a replacement banknote.  .
  2. Argentina uses "R" in the serial number to mark replacement banknotes.
  3. The Bahamas use "Z" in the serial number to mark replacement banknotes.
  4. Hong Kong and Mongolia use "ZZ" in the serial number to mark replacement banknotes.
  5. Singapore uses "Z/1" in the serial number to mark replacement banknotes.
  6. Indonesia uses "X" in the serial number to mark replacement banknotes.
  7. Zambia uses "X3" in the serial number to mark replacement polymer banknotes.
  8. Thailand uses "5 OS" in the serial number to mark replacement polymer banknotes.

Thursday, December 19, 2013

Pelmanism- 1

(Main tips based on "Pelman system for training of Mind, Memory and Personality" taught and practiced seventy years ago)

Compiled by N.R. Jayaraman
The basic need in every one of us who are working in industries and other establishments is to control our thoughts.  If we conquer our thoughts, there will be little need to worry over our actions as every one of our action face reactions in one way or the other, be it result  in  good or bad.

Remember every one of us has inborn will power of our own. Every hour one way or the other we elect to exercise our will over some decision or others and their consequent actions. The will in us some time turn  into stubbornness when our actions may go wrong. Stubbornness in every issue is not a good sign to continue. It needs edit. To apply the will to edit thinking is not one of the easiest things to do, but it can be done if one keep emotions under control. How can it be achieved?

Relax.....Relax now and then in many ways which need not be sleep alone.  No matter how fit in mind and body one may be, consider little relaxation while working. Relaxation is diversion from routine thoughts. Just a cup of tea enjoying its flavor, a few yards walk -may be till rest room (Toilet),get up from the chair and stand alone for few seconds etc. From the point of efficient working, relaxing could be an wise investment. You can see even machineries, engines, animals, and even soils have periods of rest which regenerate their efficiency.

What is relaxation? Letting all muscular tension fade away so that the limbs and organs are allowed to sag while the mind becomes light thereby curbing anxiety which brings in fatigue. The anxiety and  fatigue can attack anyone who enjoy  working  outstandingly with brilliant brain unless they relax and relieve the intensity greatly. Resolve the following while relaxing:

-I am resolved to shape my tomorrow through my thoughts of today
- Everyday from now on  I shall do something to consolidate my future success.
- I intent to translate purposeful thinking into progressive action through my will (power)
-I shall develop the power to concentrate so that no endeavor may fall midway for want of well plan
-My mind will work for me, I shall ensure that it does not work against me.
- Will discover the  source of negative feelings and ensure that they are erased from my mind.
-I shall ensure that my personality (act) command favorable opinions
- For good judgment, mind control is essential. I shall control my thoughts meaningfully by concentration in action
- I shall practice forethought for every act
- Let me adjust my power of seeing, feeling, thinking and will to act to meet the needs of tomorrow's world.

Friday, December 6, 2013

An analysis on Printing and circulation of Paper Money - 10

Circulation of Paper Money via-a-vise
 Quantum of Paper Money  
printed and processed

( Written by : N. R. Jayaraman) 

- 10 -
Like the throne in flesh, the sorting out process of Soiled notes in the banks and separating the good and bad prints during printing process involve big manual force besides taking much time whose expenditure is also not commensurate with the end product cost. Therefore such of the practices are slowly dispensed with automation processes have been introduced in several points in banks and presses to ensure that subjectivity in manual process is avoided and also quickens the processing time.

As per the RBI Annual Report 2011-13/ VIII-Currency Management '' around 14.1 billion pieces of soiled banknotes (20.4 per cent of banknotes in circulation) were processed and removed from circulation during 2012-13. The number of banknotes withdrawn from circulation and eventually disposed of at the Reserve Bank offices increased over the previous year (2011-12) by 358 million pieces. During 2012-13, around 8.97 billion pieces were processed through 59 Currency Verification and Processing Systems (CVPS) and the remainder were disposed of under other modes''. 

See the quantum of soiled notes generated and disposed in the last six years to understand the how difficult is the production of Bank Notes and putting them to Circulation. Earlier the Soiled Notes were incinerated (Burnt inside a special machine)  and disposed off which was taking too much of time. This process was also considered not Eco friendly and invited objections as the fumes generated by the incinerator was polluting the atmosphere. This was also one of the causes for the slower rate of  processing the Soiled Notes.  Therefore a new technique of cutting the bundles of Notes into small tiny pieces by crushing them in the Shredding machine and then to compress them into briquets in a briquetting machine  has been introduced in the banks to hasten the process of disposing the Soiled Notes.

In this respect read the following News items from Business Standard News Paper that throws further light on soiled Notes.

February 24, 2011 Last Updated at 20:54 IST)


Stop re-circulation of soiled notes: RBI to banks

.............''Soiled notes may soon be a thing of past as the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has asked all bank branches handling large amounts of currency to put in place note-sorting machines by the end of next month with a view to halting re-circulation of unfit currency notes.

The Reserve Bank is committed to a 'clean note' policy. RBI exchanges soiled notes for clean ones, and mutilated notes for new ones subject to certain conditions," central bank Governor D Subbarao said at the Convocation function of Sambalpur University here.

"In pursuit of our clean note policy and to check counterfeiting, we also prescribed that by March 31, 2011, all bank branches with cash receipts of over Rs 50 lakh per day be equipped with a note sorting machine so that every high denomination currency note is checked for fitness and genuineness before being put back in circulation," he said.

Furthermore, he said, the RBI has instructed banks to ensure that the notes that they issue through their ATMs are also pre-checked for genuineness and cleanliness.

He pointed out that cost and longevity are important dimensions of currency management. "We are a large cash economy; in fact, we are the second largest producer and consumer of currency in the world, next only to China. Producing such a large amount of currency is expensive," he said.......................


Press Trust of India | New Delhi
May 13, 2013 Last Updated at 00:37 IST


RBI gears up for plastic notes as 20% paper bills get soiled

................As the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) gears up for a trial of plastic currency notes, it has to dispose of soiled paper currency bills worth an estimated amount of over Rs 2 lakh crore a year.

On an average, one out of five paper notes in circulation (over 20 per cent) gets disposed of every year after getting soiled and the number of such soiled currency bills stood at over 13 billion units during the financial year ended March 31, according to the latest data available with RBI.

The figures are not yet available for 2012-13, but the number of soiled currency notes has remained above 13 billion for at least three financial years.

According to RBI data, the total value of all currency notes in circulation stood at over Rs 10.5 lakh crore at the end of financial year 2011-12.

However, soiled notes valued at an estimated amount of Rs 2.05 lakh crore had to be moved out of circulation by RBI during that financial year..................''


July 16, 2001 Last Updated at 00:00 IST


Soiled Notes Eradication drive
................The Reserve Bank of India's (RBI) city office has embarked on the second phase of its campaign to eradicate the menace of soiled and mutilated currency notes of Re 1, Rs 2 and Rs 5 denominations from all parts of Gujarat, according to RBI regional director (Gujarat) V S Das.

Saying that the first phase of the drive launched last year was very fruitful, Das revealed that because of the campaign notes packed in plastic packets have disappeared from several places including Ahmedabad. A similar drive is already continuing in Bhavnagar, Rajkot and Vadodara and other centers such as Bhuj, Deesa, Gandhidham, Jamnagar, Junagadh, Porbandar, Surat, would be taken up shortly, he added.

Emphasizing that the central bank has also stepped up remittances of coins to various Gujarat towns having this problem of soiled and mutilated notes, Das said, "Public sector banks have also been urged to rise to the occasion and provide exchange facilities to the members of public at all their branches. In this connection, a letter has been sent by the RBI deputy governor to the chairmen of all concerned public sector banks. "Maintaining that it is necessary that people stop using and accepting such mutilated and soiled currency notes, Das advised anyone who comes across such notes should tender them for exchange at the counters of public sector banks or at the mobile counters specifically moving around in various districts of Gujarat.

Claiming that RBI is closely monitoring the drive and it is determined to solve the problem, he said that within the next few months entire Gujarat would be cleared of all the soiled and mutilated notes currently in circulation............... 


January 5, 2002 Last Updated at 00:00 IST


RBI Preferring To Burn 90% Of Soiled Notes

...............Shortage of staff at its currency note examination sections and a higher amount of money in circulation are forcing the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to incinerate soiled notes at a faster clip.

The RBI's two new mints have contributed to the large increase in the supply of fresh notes, while the capacity of its note examination section has declined.

There are as many as 4,000 currency chests in the country and 101 note examination sections.

RBI spokesperson Alpana Kilawala said the total number of currency notes in circulation has increased in the economy due to which more notes were getting soiled and were being returned to the note examination section.

Many such note examination sections were facing severe shortage of trained staff due to which such notes were straightway discarded/incinerated.

The increase in currency under circulation also means chests at all locations were full to the brim. So, replacing the old notes with new ones was the best option.

Commenting on the possibility of fake notes being replaced by real ones, Kilawala said, "The RBI has experts who are provided regular training and the possibility of fake notes evading detection is remote in any case."

RBI officials here said that as much as 90 per cent of notes deposited in the RBI currency chest were being discarded. In the process, fake notes were also being eradicated.

According to the report of the committee on currency management, soiled notes returning form circulation as the total of those received by RBI and those awaiting removal from chests rose from 6,300 million pieces in 1984-85 to about 7,000 million pieces in 1988-89.

As on date the figure is approximately 6,855 million pieces. At present notes with denomination Rs 1, Rs 2, Rs 5, Rs 10, Rs 20 and Rs 50 were being discarded................


The procurement of several of the Raw material needed for producing the Bank Notes are elaborate and involve cumbersome process and procedures. Some of them being imported long term contracts are also involved for uninterrupted supplies. The process of printing Bank Notes is not just a quick act of Printing the Notes like Xerox copying on Photocopier machines and pack them for onward supply to RBI.
End to end, several procedures are involved to print and finish the Notes with several processes and prints from machines accounted by multiple cross checking points to ensure that the printed sheets do not disappear from the presses. The first multiple up print on blank paper from machine ending into packet of 100/1000 Notes in the other end takes a months travel in normal course. Under such cumbersome procedures it takes minimum 280-300 working days to complete the process of Indent supplies to the extent of 1800 to 2000 million pieces in several denominations. Therefore a long drawn plan required involving co-ordination between various agencies in RBI, Ministry, Presses and suppliers necessitates five year projections to plan out the procurement action. RBI has been attempting to streamline the entire issue concerning Currency Management in which the Paper Money Printing and issue are integral part.