The published articles are meant to primarily educate the students in printing to supplement their knowledge in the field of Printing. These are not simple Glossary of printing terms, but to the extent possible every term has been explained in brief so that it can be of some use to the students who appear in some sort of examinations and interviews.
I served the Printing Industry for over 40 years
in various capacities, a major part in an Security Printing Organization. In order not to waste the printing and paper related knowledge which I gained over years, I decided to keep them in public domain for the reason stated in prepara. Most of the illustrations - over 90% - have been generated by me to explain the terms suitably.
While I am not sure to what extent the published content will help, if the content is going to be of use to some one in some manner, I will be greatly satisfied.
Your views may be sent to me ( for my record and correction wherever needed.



- Over 400 terms-

Click on this line to read from 'A'

Monday, April 29, 2013

Origin and growth of Bank Notes and Currencies - 3

Origin and growth of
Bank Notes and Currencies - 3

(Written by N.R. Jayaraman

Sweden reportedly initiated the first step in the issue of Paper Currencies to guarantee the payment for trade because European country had copper metal in abundance which were used for minting coins. Since carrying huge quantity of metal was increasingly becoming difficult to the traders to carry on the transactions, Europeans began issuing Paper Money  that indicated the value against a given amount of copper held by the trader, so that traders could be saved from the burden of carrying big copper coins. 

The traders felt that carrying the Paper Money  certain advantages like light weight and mainly that of lowering the risks involved in transit most of which were undertaken by high seas. In the year 1690 the Massachusetts Bay Colony in American continent issued the first paper money in the colonies which later merged with US.  It confirms the Numismatics theory that the first of the Paper Money issued by European governments was actually issued by colonial governments in North America.  Since carrying huge quantity of coins for trading was difficult, in the name of Paper Money which was called   'I OWE YOU' in short as IOU's  an assurance note similar to Currency was carried by the traders in lieu of Coins which were redeemed by way of Coins when demanded anytime  by the possessors of the IOUs. 
Courtesy : Specimen three Dollar Paper Money
Courtesy : Specimen Paper Money of Massachusetts

This system of issue of some form of Paper Money was followed by Canada which was then a New French colony. In 1685, it was reported that at one period some consignment of soldiers were issued playing cards denominated and signed by the governor to be used as cash instead of coins . 
Courtesy : Specimen Playing Card Paper Money
On account of increased demand for replacing the bulky Coins, the concept of issuing the Paper Money crept in. In and around the same period i.e 16th Century some of the European countries witnessed sudden development in the name of Goldsmiths co-operative banks issuing private deposit receipts or Promissory notes called Running Cash Notes which carried the value of Gold coin that can be redeemed whenever demanded. The deposit notes carrying text ' promised to pay the bearer' were in the name of the note holders who could en cash them for Gold anywhere that has been authorized by the Goldsmiths. Those notes reportedly were initially handwritten on Bank paper and signed by one of the Bank’s cashiers who issued them. Soon, these notes began to be used as Paper Money.
In the year 1694 the Bank of England was established in order to raise money for King William III’s war against France. The issues were that of note that promised to pay the bearer the sum of the note on demand either as gold or coin  by anyone presenting it for payment. These notes were also initially handwritten on Bank paper and signed by one of the Bank’s cashiers similar to the ones issued by the Goldsmith Bankers notes. But such notes issued had certain limitations in respect of  the value of exchange. 
 In the year 1775 American colonists issued Paper Money for the Continental congress to finance the revolutionary War.  Slowly almost every Nation around the world started looking up for the  Paper money in place on metallic coins. 
One important point to be noted in all the above narrated story is that none of the so called Paper Money issued had intricate design elements, security features, and many were not  issued on Water mark paper as the concept of watermark had only begun then using steel rollers to impress some text or illustration on paper.  Most of the so called paper Money were also in hand written formats except in some cases in China which were impressed with some specially designed  seals with Red or Black inks.  
 Against this background the origin and growth of Indian Currency and Bank Notes is studied. Paper money traces its origins to the late 17th Century in India when the notes were issued in limited scale by several private banks. be continued

Sunday, April 28, 2013

Origin and growth of Bank Notes and Currencies - 2

Origin and growth of
Bank Notes and Currencies - 2

(Written by N.R. Jayaraman

A Banknote or Currency called as paper money is a type of negotiable instrument or a promissory note and the amount indicated on it payable to the bearer on demand. When banknotes were initially introduced, they were like instruments of promissory bonds assuring to pay the bearer in coins, and as the age passed, they gradually became a Paper Currency, a substitute for the coins. 

The first banknotes in the form of Paper reportedly appeared in China some time in 910 AD and continued to be experimented in the Five Dynasties period. It became a familiar currency by the end of the century when under the Northern Song Dynasty a group of merchants issued something like an assurance note in print form called 'Jiaozi note' that carried a text reading ' the bill may be used instead of 77,000 wen of metal coinage'. They contained some pictures like group of people, houses etc along with some anti-counterfeiting marks and printed alternately in red and black inks. Those notes were convertible into hard currency and were readily accepted and circulated widely. This was done to relieve the burden of merchants carrying bulky Iron coins for commercial transactions. Of course they were not Currency meant to be replacement to the Coins , but were only guarantee notes akin to Currency note.

When the limited exercise of issuing Paper Currency commenced by the group of merchants gained momentum in the trading community, in the year 1023 the Song Dynasty officially began printing and issuing Jiaozi Paper Money by officially setting up banks. 

 Jiaozi, a form of banknote that surfaced around 10th century in the Sichuan capital of Chengdu in China was viewed by the Numismatics as the first attempt in the history of Bank Notes and Currencies towards issuance of paper money. 
Though the 'Jiaozi note' was not considered Currency, it was nevertheless a promissory paper meant to guarantee payment of '77,000 wen of metal coinage' and used by the merchants in limited sphere for transacting the business. One very intriguing aspect found in those notes were multiple Banknote seals stamped on the note to prevent counterfeiting! The note bore the illustration of some merchants, with several seals found on the top portion, followed by guarantee text below the seals.

Though the Jiaozi was issued during the Song Dynasty, later dynasties also adopted the use of paper currency, such as the Yuan, Ming, and Qing Dynasties, though they never officially replaced coinage. Subsequently each emperor had the practice of casting new currency to replace the old one, and some even had several different versions of currency issued during their own reign. Perhaps such development might have prompted the Mongol Empire Kublai Khan ( Also called Genghis Khan)  of  China to issue the first ever Paper Currency and made it mandatory to use them in replacement to the coins. 

As I mentioned earlier, though the first known Bank note was developed in China during the Tang and Song dynasties during  7th century,  in Europe the concept of Banknotes was first seeded into the minds of the European rulers during the 13th century by travelers like Marco Polo who had seen the Paper Currencies issued by the Mongol emperor in China. be continued

Saturday, April 27, 2013

Origin and growth of Bank Notes and Currencies - 1

Origin and growth of
Bank Notes and Currencies - 1

(Written by N.R. Jayaraman

The birth and growth of Paper Currencies and Bank Notes stemmed from several facts spread across centuries. It will therefore be interesting to know how the Paper Currencies and Bank Notes world over came to be accepted as Money replacing the earlier form of Money that were exchanged in different stocks.

Now Money as a means of payment, consists of coins, paper money and withdrawal documents. Today, credit cards and electronic cash form an important component of the payment system. However a majority of common people prefer the use of paper currency and coins for transacting their day to day business. Especially in a country like India which has vast majority of her people living in the villages, people believe in transacting anything and everything through liquid cash which is in the form of printed notes or coins.  It is true that only from the primitive system called barter i.e. exchange of goods for goods- emerged the system of payment through some form of money- -both made of Metals and Paper.
At the beginning of the bygone years say in and around 9000 BC, it was seen that the most popular form of barter was live stocks such as Ox, cows, goats , sheep etc which were exchanged. With the advent of agriculture the use of grain and other vegetable or plant products too came to be exchanged. Besides the live stocks and cattle, in and around 13000 BC, expensive shells and cowries which were widely available in the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean were also considered as money for transacting the business. They were considered treasured item in the civilizations of China and India from very early times. This system continued till the Europeans arrived in Asia. 

In about 1500 years ago metals represented the stored value of goods exchanged as barter in place of shells and Cowries. The earliest form of money in metallic form was used in China in and around 1000 BC while in the third millennium BC in Egypt the metallic Money consisted of Gold bars. Money, one of the earliest and most significant inventions of civilization became essential to the development of trade. 

When use of metals as a form of Money became prevalent they had holes in between as the coins could be chained together which made one easier to carry them for transacting the business. If we see the earlier coins issued by the Govt of India, one may find holes in the center for few reasons. It was perhaps thought that the coins will weigh less and they can be easily carried by chaining with thick thread if they had holes. From metals like Copper and Steel came the Silver, Bronze and Gold coins to act as Money. Gradually the metallic coins with some images impregnated as seals were adopted across the world as Money. 
Prior to the introduction of banknotes, precious or semi-precious metals minted into coins were widely used as a medium of exchange. The value attributed to Money in coins were originally based upon the value of the metal, but over time, coins developed a value in their own right which might have differed substantially from the metal from which they were made. 
The next form of currency that was used as Money was issued in leather for a limited period but did not succeed. The idea of a using durable light-weight substance like leather as evidence of a promise to pay a bearer on demand originated during the Han Dynasty in China.  It has been discovered that around the year 118 B.C when Han Dynasty ruled China, some of the banknotes in China were made from leather such as white deerskin. This period is believed to be just the starting of paper money.

 This may be true because parched vellum, an animal skin treated and used as Paper to document the texts surfaced in China during the same period i.e 9th century A.D to 15th Century A.D.   Numismatics are of the opinion  that in India in the 13th century in the Yadav  kingdom the concept of leather currency appeared to have been known. If a king were to impress his royal stamp on a piece of leather, it may pass of as Money. In one of the most infamous act an eccentric monarch called Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (1325-1350 AD), reportedly introduced leather currency in India, but like many of his other monetary reforms it did not succeed. 
It will be interesting to read the following news which throw  some light on the use of Leather as Currency : 
- Quote:
David Klinger writes: "I recently acquired an interesting used book from an online bookseller (B&N): "Money and Conquest - Allied Occupation Currencies in World War II", by Vladimir
Petrov (1966 - The Johns Hopkins Press). This is from Petrov's introduction: 
"During the prolonged siege of Tyre in the year 1123, the Doge Domenigo Michieli exhausted his treasury chest. Because his brave Venetians clamored for pay and some reportedly contemplated desertion, the resourceful Doge had leather coins struck and issued them to pay his troops. The issue of this "money of necessity" was accompanied by a solemn promise that it would be redeemed at full face value upon the return of the fleet to Venice. Historians did not record the reaction of the crusaders to this early substitute for good gold, or indeed whether Domenigo Michieli, noted for his shrewdness as well as his ferocity, actually honored his pledge. But in all probability these leather coins were the first issue of what has eventually come to be called military currency. 

Kublai Khan, the most famous Mongol ruler in China in 13th Century  issued Paper Money  by decreeing that his paper money must be accepted by traders  and to enforce it he confiscated all gold and silver, even if it was brought in by foreign traders. 
Impressed by the efficacy of the Paper Money established by Kublai Khan, one of the most famous travelers Marco Polo, who discovered some of the Nations, chronicled  in his The Travels of Marco Polo (Il Milione)  on the use of Paper Money:  
- Quote 
"All these pieces of paper are issued with as much solemnity and authority as if they were of pure gold or silver; and on every piece a variety of officials, whose duty it is, have to write their names, and to put their seals. 
And when all is prepared duly, the chief officer deputed by the Khan smears the seal entrusted to him with vermilion, and impresses it on the paper, so that the form of the seal remains imprinted upon it in red; the money is then authentic. 
Anyone forging it would be punished with death. And the Khan causes every year to be made such a vast quantity of this money, which costs him nothing, that it must equal in amount all the treasure of the world." 
 - Unquote    ( Courtesy:  ) be continued

Thursday, April 18, 2013

features of the special device for sequential numbering -2

One of the features of the
special device for sequential
numbering of sheets


Of late concern has been raised over the menace of forged bank notes and currencies all over the world. In order to strengthen the security one should not concentrate on the design aspect alone. Some different thinking is needed. Few ideas emerges in the direction of the numbering systems. They are shown below:

Over the years we have been numbering the documents only with a set of standard fonts and letters without realizing that some security can be added to them in addition to the style of font the specially prepared numerals can also have some designs which can not be copied by the counterfeiters. How could this be done ? With the special device (numbering box) it can be done.

We are using the conventional numbers so far which are of plain text as shown below.


However in the suggested number each numerals will have a specific design element in it. Say No 1 will have a design which will be different than No 2. The No 2 different than No 3 and so on.

Either the designed number panel can remain on the top or at the bottom in the manner suggested . The design element can also be country specific so that the cost of reproducing them will become very high to the counterfeiters as such Numbering boxes will not be available. More over it will remain an overt feature for the Public. Both the two Numbering boxes will have to be engraved with such Numerals. 

The numbers can be printed with specific shades as per the design element content in it. The numbers can also be printed alternately with colour changing ink which will alter the shade as shown above even with touch of finger which will have minimum body heat. The counterfeiters will not be able to produce such a numerical wheel which will be very costly.

This is one of the advantage of the device patented as registration will be highly difficult for counterfeiters to register the numbers besides it is non photo copyable as the color copied print will not change the color of ink with body heat from  the finger .

Tuesday, April 16, 2013

Patent for Device for sequential numbering of sheets

Patent for  Device for sequential 
numbering of sheets


What a great day for me! After years of patience, my invention-Special Device for sequential numbering of sheets- a novel technique for the security printing has been granted Patent rights !!


Sophisticated numbering systems have been designed to protect bank notes from being forged. These systems are based on highly advanced technology and fully protect the documents. One of the elements has been the numbering of the bank notes and Currencies. Unlike universally used numbering system used for the printing of Bank notes and Currencies which are prone to high risk of counterfeiting, the system invented now when adapted will prevent the counterfeiters from forging the technology to produce Bank notes and Currencies as some can be printed by special invisible or color changing inks which can not be obtained even by color photocopier.
This is done by using two numbering boxes, each having only partial image of the numerals to be numbered in the same panel in two different colors. This needs to be done only on one panel while the other panel will have normal numbering system. The numbering technique involves modification in the existing numbering machines, numbering boxes and the method of printing. The specimen printed format is :-

Monday, April 15, 2013

Bench Marking

Bench Marking

(Written by : N.R. Jayaraman)

There are no standard bench marking procedures or parameters meant for the industries. However the bench marking is done by the firms themselves to improve their working by comparing their activities with other units whose efficiency in several factors are considered as the best practice followed in their industry.
Benchmarking in the simplest term is the continuous process of comparing the business standards, processes and other in house activities with similar units to cause improvements wherever they find their activities lack in performance. It does not mean that a small industry may compare their activities with huge organization and draw conclusion. There are two basic issues involved. To compare the process flow for a specific product and secondly the quality of the same product produced.
Factors typically measured are quality of the end product produced, processing aspects, time and ultimate cost of the product with profit margin. In the process of best practice of benchmarking, the management identifies the best firms in their industry or in any other industry where similar processes exist, and then compare the working and processes with their own process activities.  In this manner they learn the targets and the processes that explain why those firms with whom comparison is made are successful than the one under scrutiny.
What for the Bench marking is done?  Not everyone does it. It is undertaken only by those units which desire to progress and be in the competition producing better product with competitive pricing.  By benchmarking, each organization  improve their performance in supply and sales.

Industry benchmarks can help one to:
(1) Compare the standards laid down for the production of a particular product.
Compare how the unit is performing against similar other units. How further improvement can be brought towards efficient working to enhance their production.  One may note that the performance of a detergent manufacturing industry cannot however be compared to the spare part manufacturing unit of automobile industry to improve their efficiency.
(2) Assist to plan their activities for future expansion
(3) Work out strategy to review the practices and to amend working procedures to improve their process.

The general factors that determine the best working relates to the procedures followed by the most successful industry some of which are : 
(1) Proper budgeting and accounting procedures to run the unit
(2) Planning the schedules much in advance and monitoring the results.
(3) Trimming the processes and procedures to be more responsive to customer demand and focus on superior customer service.
(4) Year by year reduction in expenditures and increase in efficiency by bringing continuous improvements in the working
(5) Modeling and optimization through development, integration and implementation to usage.
(6) The cost effectiveness in production by identifying the overlapping and repetitive exercises to cut down the expenditure to reduce the product cost
(7) Minimizing the manual work with mechanization and contracting in the areas possible.
(8) Integrating multiple locations together via a flexible Web interface for faster exchange of commands thereby reducing cycle times of the decisions from a couple of days to hours.
(9) Constant process measurement and report generation by a group to take corrective action on time.
(10) Standardizing and simplifying the work procedures
(11) Stream lining the Procurement procedures that reduce the cost
(12) Standardizing the products purchased.
(13) Spare parts management which reduces the cost
(14) Stricter Quality control measures that prevents wasteful inputs and rejections thereby reducing the cost
(15) Greater operational efficiency like deployment of minimum best workers and getting maximum outputs.
(16) Enhancing the efficiency of the workers by motivation and in-house trainings
(17) Remodeling the procedures to follow the best procedures noticed wherever it is possible to reduce wastage of time
(18) Safety measures including adhesion to the internationally accepted norms in environment safeguards by controlled discharge of wastes and effluents

Wednesday, April 10, 2013

Counterfeiting menace - 5

Counterfeiting menace 
on printed documents
Written by : N.R. Jayaraman

This article spread over to three or four parts discuss the
 nature of security features found on the security documents
 and other commercial documents of various kinds. 

Acts  of  Counterfeiters and views

Generally in so far as the security documents/instruments are concerned the counterfeiters try to use a similar paper of the same thickness. To insert the watermark they create a manually drawn line using wax and oily substances etc. To generate the forged thread they use thread width cut foil paper, enameled paper, very thin polythene sheets and thick flat threads. A careful look at such notes can easily reveal them as counterfeit. In the case of passports and stamps, these need to be examined very carefully.
Sometimes the counterfeiters produce banknotes and currencies using colour photocopiers, or print by offset for mass production after making photographic colour separation negatives or positives. They can be easily identified with careful look by even an average intelligent person. Only those uneducated in the villages are taken for ride to make them believe that such documents are genuine. Since the counterfeiters find it difficult to match intaglio printing quality- relief effect to finger feel-they use silk screen or powder fusion techniques. Still they can also be easily detected by an average intelligent person.  Since the counterfeited security instruments are  printed in very light colors with intricate designs containing thick and thin lines, guilloche patterns , the general public cannot easily recognize the true nature of  the prints as one need to look through magnifying lenses and other optical equipment in order to identify whether the documents are genuine. The counterfeiters take advantage of such a situation and often print the notes so well by simply copying them through photographic means and then printing the colors to match with the original. Therefore a mere look will not invite suspicion as long as the note looks the same. Stamps and bonds etc are produced in a similar fashion.
Small time counterfeiters insert the notes in bundles which go unnoticed until someone points out the fakes. The same applies to bonds and stamp papers, but documents like passports are not issued in bulk and therefore forgeries are limited in order to avoid instant detection. Most of the counterfeited instruments like Currencies and Bank Notes are generally exchanged in the remote areas and routed into the cities.
1) World over some research  group is working to develop counterfeited currency  destruction program  at the source of  issue i.e ATMs  inbuilt with  detectors cum shredder to be installed at all main points of issue such as Treasury, Banks, Post Offices and Issue Offices etc. Even if by mistake or mischief the counterfeited instruments are inserted into the bundles, such machines will identify  the counterfeited instruments  and destroy them online before issue. The machines can  issue only genuine currencies. 
When all such machines were connected to a central main computer at the enforcement agencies offices, it could then be possible to control any counterfeit menace quickly. Whenever any changes are made, they can be fed through the central control system and individual machine memories would be updated automatically. The two main advantages would be :-
- The origin of such counterfeits can be quickly identified  from the central control point.
- The extent of the counterfeited documents available can be assessed.
2) Counter measures in Design :-
- Adding more features in the security paper like electrolytic watermark, void printing incorporating magnetic fibers, holographic threads etc so that the cost of counterfeiting such features will become very high thus deterring the  petty small time counterfeiters from venturing in this art of counterfeiting .
- Adding  second or even third holographic images which should be visible when the security documents are viewed from different angles. Such features are available as patented products and have been included in some international currencies and security documents. -There are holographic reproduction processes which create different light or dark images of the pictorial contents to which can be added micro lettering, machine readable lettering, 3D images, kinematics etc.
-Laser-engraved logos of the issuing authority, as an additional logo or lettering to the deeply engraved intaglio printed images could be introduced in passports.
- Guilloche patterns made up of fine, interlacing curved, wavy and even straight lines in different thicknesses as anti copy features.  Different- colored structures of guilloche designs fit together perfectly to form a balanced overall picture. Print some of the Guilloche designs with invisible colors detectable only by special readers or which will show through when rubbed with the fingers (Low generated heat contact).
- Some researchers are also exploring the possibility to print designs within designs  something like Ghost images i.e.  within one set of design in light colors another set of design in another light color which can be incorporated and printed with specially manufactured invisible inks. Such inks should reveal the inner design  in specific colour when slightly rubbed with the fingers. The counterfeiters will find it extremely difficult to copy such designs or to manufacture such complex inks as the sources will remain secret and secure besides  high cost of manufacturing. 
3) Increasing the cost of manufacturing the currencies and security instruments  by incorporating more features instead of limiting only to five or six features.  The common security features are the latent image, see through, different thickness of lines, ghost images, micro letters, guilloche patterns, watermark portrait, see through number, iridescent maple leaves, hidden number, fine-line patterns, us of colors which cannot be copied, intaglio printing with varying depths, use of invisible inks, use of OVI in Intaglio, silk screen printing using OVI, etc.  Countries all over the world use only few from amongst these features. If more features are kept, no doubt the cost will go up per currency production, but it will discourage the counterfeiters from counterfeiting.
4) Form a Committee of experts consisting of technical experts, administrators, and law enforcement agencies which should meet at an agreed interval of six months. Analyse the counterfeited menace with supportive statistics, exchange views on the latest security feature developments for banknotes, currencies, passports, postal stationery etc. and suggest improvements for the next design .
The panel should be empowered to conduct trials on the designs of the security documents with new features and technology at the manufacturers premises, compile data and work out costs, carry out lab and physical tests by following laid down procedures. The recorded findings will become a definitive document in order to identify the best security features to be incorporated in the new documents as and when any changes become essential. This is perhaps practiced by well established Bank Note and Currency Producing units and security document producers  around the world. 

: Source for statistics shown above :  
Estimation of Counterfeit Currency Notes in India 
 Alternative Methodologies 


Tuesday, April 9, 2013

Counterfeiting menace - 4

Counterfeiting menace 
on printed documents
Written by : N.R. Jayaraman

This article spread over to three or four parts discuss the
 nature of security features found on the security documents
 and other commercial documents of various kinds. 


In addition to the standard features which have been discussed as mentioned earlier I have reproduced  for educational purpose, brief on certain security features developed and owned as proprietary products by some of the reputed  firms. For more details the concerned firms should only be contacted.

18) Opsec Security has developed an unique security feature called liquid crystal technology to create a range of highly specialized OVD security products that provide overt, covert and forensic protection into a single image. Advantage™ which can be customized to any logo for brands is available in a variety of constructions for multiple delivery systems, providing excellent optical authentication and tamper evidence. In normal lighting conditions, both daylight and artificial, the image appears green to orange, depending on the viewing angle.
The firm claims that the unique tri-modal color-shift technology is easily verified yet cannot be reproduced by even the most sophisticated duplication technology such as printing, photography or color photocopy. The product is reportedly represented by SecurMAX™. To read more on this product visit their site by clicking:

19) M/s Kodak Ltd, pioneers in the photographic field has also come out with a special feature called KODAK TRACELESS Color Shifting Inks. Available in seven color pairs, KODAK TRACELESS Color Shifting Inks provide an overt authentication feature. These inks are made with special pigments that change color as the viewing angle changes. Available in seven eye-catching color pairs it can be the security feature for the packages, labels and documents . Color shifting features can be used on a solid black background, white background or gradients. Multiple layers of security is applied in a single step when used in combination with KODAK TRACELESS Markers. To read more on this product visit their site by clicking:

20) INKSURE taggants mixed with the ink can be applied to every medium like polymeric foils, plastics, paper, natural/synthetic fabrics, metal, glass, wood, ceramics and more. The exceptional durability of INKSURE taggants can withstand harsh wear-and-tear conditions. The presence of the taggant in the print can be verified by a custom prepared hand held device. This feature is reportedly used in flexographic printing for pharmaceutical product labels and on their cartons. To read more on this product visit their site by clicking:
21) As a banknote and security paper manufacturer, Giesecke & Devrient has introduced innovative security features such as the following. 
  • FEEL  called Fast Energy Effective Inks (Special Effect Inks) is an interactive security feature for banknotes. The printed color undergoes a clearly visible color change as soon as it is exposed to heat. The warmth of your fingertip is enough to alter the color at a specific location on the banknote.
    PEAK called Printed Embossed Anti copy Key (Intaglio printing) combines offset and intaglio printing. Fine lines produced in a special engraving method are embossed to produce a three- dimensional, optically variable image. The color and information changes according to the viewing angle and light direction. Users can feel the tactile embossing with their fingers. These effects cannot be replicated by a color copier.

    FIT latent (Intaglio printing– the new generation of latent images offers  digital image flip on a 3D background. Tilting the banknote changes the image, making two different motifs visible.
  • FIRST (Covert security features) uses a laser to create hidden codes on the printed banknote. These are invisible to the human eye and can only be read under an infrared light.
  • STEP called Shimmery Twin Effect Protection  (Special Effect Inks) is an optically variable ink that produces two different color effects from different viewing angles.
  • FIT called  Fine Intaglio Technology (Intaglio printing) is the first-ever steel engraving method that can produce ultra-fine lines. This high-resolution technology enables the creation of novel security features that are unparalleled in terms of design and quality.
  • LOOK (Laser Marking) is a laser marking method that uses ultramodern laser technology to individually adapt established security features and thereby create new ones.
  • Using the feature – known as INFACIO – passport photographs and text can be protected against tampering. According to the company: “Each passport holder’s personal data can be printed in the passport using a special ink that remains invisible in normal daylight, but which can be revealed under ultraviolet lighting. Read more info in the two links:   
22) In order to incorporate security feature in the labels affixed on the fuel  filters which is fitted on parts generating  high temperature at 120 to 200 degrees Celsius and getting fuel and water on the label  FORGE GUARD® has been developed by Fuji films Ltd. The FORGE GUARD® has high anti-counterfeiting feature and it is only manufactured in Fuji film.  Read more info in the  link :

23) Developed by 3M™ , a new feature called the color floating image is a non copyable, non reproducible feature . They are based on the unique construction and covert security features that enhances security and is easier to verify without using an authentication tool. The Color Floating Image is a customized image that dramatically moves and appears to “float” above and sink below the surface of the document. This is used on ID Cards etc. 
Read more by clicking :


While much of the security features mentioned under Serials 1 to 16 are meant for the security documents like currencies, bank notes, postal stamps, passports etc, they are not applied on brand protection labels, cartons and labels produced for the mass selling unique consumer products, spare parts and Pharmaceutical products (labels) etc due to the high cost involved in producing them. The commercial print documents for consumer and Pharmaceutical products, the brand protection labels etc at best may have micro lettering, OVI, OVD patches, taggants and invisible inks. The high moving, well established and reputed consumer products of years of standing get customized security features for their labels that are not easily copyable. Such feature includes holographic designs, invisible text which can be read only with special gadgets, and special inks that glow under certain lights. be continued