The published articles are meant to primarily educate the students in printing to supplement their knowledge in the field of Printing. These are not simple Glossary of printing terms, but to the extent possible every term has been explained in brief so that it can be of some use to the students who appear in some sort of examinations and interviews.
I served the Printing Industry for over 40 years
in various capacities, a major part in an Security Printing Organization. In order not to waste the printing and paper related knowledge which I gained over years, I decided to keep them in public domain for the reason stated in prepara. Most of the illustrations - over 90% - have been generated by me to explain the terms suitably.
While I am not sure to what extent the published content will help, if the content is going to be of use to some one in some manner, I will be greatly satisfied.
Your views may be sent to me ( for my record and correction wherever needed.



- Over 400 terms-

Click on this line to read from 'A'

Friday, June 14, 2013

Cadmop - 6

Useful tips for better Supervision 
  • Analyze with cool mind the important tas given to you.  First thoroughly understand what needs to be done to achieve the targeted goal and then you may workout deadlines for completing  such activities  and  assign duties accordingly to complete the process. 
  • To achieve the targets you may have to pick up the right group, even if it means consulting your higher official. You have to ensure that a highly motivated and skilled employees who are expert in such tasks  are picked up. 
  • Assign the task to the said group with clear instructions on how you desire to achieve the targeted goal.  The instruction must include the deadline specified for each step to accomplish the target.
  • Once you assign the task to other you must carefully monitor the progress and issue instruction only if you find the deadlines for each  steps are not met and the cushion given for it  also exceeded.
  • Avoid showering  favoritism to any particular person in the  group.
  • Give due respect in dealing with the employee working under you is older than you.  You can be strict to them but use language which is not offensive wounding their respect.
  • You can praise the abilities of a worker in front of others, but do not compare him with another worker who is not efficient, and continued to be present in the group.  
  • While admonishing some one  be cautious  that it is not done in front of others, particularly if the employee happens to be aged person. 
  • Avoid frequent use of  promoting 'I' in every work done.
  • Whenever  you hear of a new product which will  help boosting productivity, diarise them with addresses if possible. They can come handy whenever modernization takes place and  you can offer suggestion from your side.
  • In every industry there will always be objectionists who will discourage every move. It should not therefore prevent you from holding group discussions in hour of need. Ignore comments of objectionists and go with majority views, sometimes accepting even their views with reservation as the views according to the Supervisor may need to be modified. Doesn't matter. Take the majority views as guidance for better. In industries where quality circle exist, such meetings are common.   

Thursday, June 13, 2013

Cadmop - 5


Reporting on employees 
Reporting on employees  is different from reporting technical problems. Whenever a problem connected to workmen occurred, the Supervisor will have to first determine the seriousness of the situation and the appropriate response required before rushing in to report. The  first reaction over such incidents is to take stock of situation in cool and composed manner unless the incident involved fist fights leading to bloodshed or accidents which of course are serious enough to prima facie report without second thoughts.   

While reporting  any incident involving employees, accidents or expressing his opinion on any issues involving employee problems, the Supervisor needs to be cautious and act in fair manner without prejudice  in mind  towards any particular group of employees. This is where maintaining  personalized diary with day to day recording of even minor matters will prove helpful at some stage

If the situation involving incidents of  employee or employees is not alarming, then the  Supervisor should first show positive approach to  discipline the employee
s by exercising  his personal wisdom, discuss pros and cons of the incident to lead the employees to the path of  good behavior in future.  This will pave way to implement progressive discipline in the work units and therefore the Supervisor needs to consider appropriate time and place for the disciplinary actions to correct the uncorrectable employees. 

Unless corrective  actions  taken with his own wisdom failed and  patient approaches exhausted,  one should not rush to reporting which should be final but forceful to instill fear in the minds of subordinates that the Supervisor above them is humane, but at the same time when limit of patience is crossed he will fire with gun (act).  Once reported it is expected that the disciplinary process happen reasonably in short time  without causing undue delay lest next process of indiscipline will surface. 

At each stage in the correction process the supervisor should meet the employee in private and discuss the issues by explaining issues with reason.  If need be  a confidant employee is also associated to be witness to such  process. 

Progressive discipline is a patient process  involving  mind conversion of   employees misbehaving  in the workplace.  This process will be slow, but should be steady  to give scope to the  employee to improve himself as every act of misconduct by him may not have been done intentionally and their sudden burst out may have been borne out of anger or emotion.  However, if  some of the rogue employees fail  to make use of the good gesture from the Supervisor the end result of a progressive discipline process should be severe penalty if necessary even termination from service.  Remember that the ultimate reporting suggesting harder actions should happen only after giving reasonably long rope and all avenues of  progressive discipline failed to yield the  result.  In any case no indiscipline that affect productivity improvement should be allowed and nipped in bud itself.

Quality added services- Various other approaches 
Ego is the worst  enemy of  an individual.  Every one in the industry, irrespective of their status, expect that they be respected and recognized whether they have admirably carried out the duty or otherwise.  They long for recognition in some way or the other.  This is an inseparable nature of a human. In view of this fact, the employees working under a Supervisor should be handled psychologically by exploiting such sentiments to ensure serene working atmosphere.

Many of the Japanese industries have been practicing a technique by which they are able to not only improve the quality of the products produced by them, but also improve the behavior  and efficiency of the employees. Some of the  general practices adapted by them is reported to be the following:
  • There is no harm in saying simple 'hello' when you first meet them at the start of the day and say 'goodbye the end of the day. This does not mean that you are very close to them. It only conveys the symbol of respect on others.
  • Spending few minutes of chatting with the employees can keep lines of communication intact and set positive tone for  future communications.
  • Say 'thank you' for even an unimportant or small job done. Be specific while thanking for the task done by saying something like ' wonderful job done, keep it up. Thank you' or 'But for your effort, may be this job would not have been completed in time. Thank you'. The word 'thank you' is only symbol of good gesture.

  • Even though one need not  interact as personal  frienor maintain family friendship with co employees, personal touch like inquiry on their health on telephone, sending messages through some one or personal visit especially when employee fall seriously ill or some calamity occurred in their houses, greet them on their birthdays, wedding days etc will help create pleasant relationship which lay platform for effective communication in future when necessary. 
  • Conveying to the employees about positive comments that the Supervisor  got from others about them and simultaneously appreciate them from his side too.
  • Whenever called in Official meetings, the Supervisor should  not fail to acknowledge the efforts or skills of the work team whenever they have successfully achieved the targeted results.  The compliments of higher authorities along with what he conveyed in the meeting  in respect of the target achieved should be briefly made known to the employees. This can be  source of inspiration for others.
  • Another important aspect that gives soothing effect in the minds of everyone working in the work area is cleanliness as everything starts from cleanliness and serene atmosphere in work place. Therefore the Supervisors may ensure that the work area under him is maintained neat and clean. 
  • Systematically sort out workable and non workable items in the work place and keep them well arranged and organized for use or for disposal in future. With self discipline, the behavioral pattern of every one around the Supervisor  will also drastically change.

Wednesday, June 12, 2013

Cadmop - 4

Communication is a key competency issue for supervisors. Communication means  conveying some message either verbally or in writing.  The Supervisors are responsible for communicating with every one within the organization in the manner understandable by them.  One of the most important part of communication is reporting on technical issues and the other on employees' behavior.  Communication  also covers  conveying  the messages from higher ups to the employees or vice verse at times of dispute or some program being envisaged for better productivity.                   

To communicate the messages in the most appropriate and clear manner certain amount of practice will be necessary. Therefore  every Supervisor will have to develop their own skill in communication unless otherwise the  official mode of communication has established standard within the organization. The back door communication in unofficial manner is different if the Supervisor and the higher officials are in secret agreement  to keep in knowledge whatever is happening in the work units so that at the time of crisis such information may be helpful. This is mostly practiced by every industry.  

However there may be established formats in which the technical issues like breakdown of machineries and equipments or technical snags affecting productivity are  reported, while reporting the indiscipline, insubordination or quarrel amongst workers affecting productivity will be different and there can not be established formats as each case will be different versions.  The reporting on such matters  should be clear in all senses instead of loading them with unwanted narration like that of story writing. To develop the art of clear communication,  the Supervisors are therefore advised to read in their leisure time the earlier written reports  available  in their units and learn from them. 

These two types of communication are very important in an organization and  the manner in which such communication is made  will automatically reflect the efficiency of the Supervisor.  Sometimes the communication may remain verbal followed by written one on the same subject at later stage. In such cases the Supervisor may have to be cautious a in maintaining the same true content, lest changes in tone and tenure may  fire back on them.  Therefore it would be safe for the Supervisors to diaries such events and expressed views for future references. 
In respect of productive activities, the Supervisors are responsible for evaluating the preliminary results achieved against the targets and communicating the  results to their manager as and when asked.  Before submitting  the results  the draft for  communication  is prepared detailing the reasons for failure in meeting the targets along with  his own expert opinion conveying how best such gaps could be addressed in future.  Let us  now briefly see how the reporting is done. 

Reporting on Technical matters  
In the case of technical problems or breakdown of the machineries or equipments the Supervisor's note should give a brief account of the  problem covering technical aspects- whether such a problem was noticed earlier, their causes and how they were addressed earlier without narrating like  story telling. Generally the short but pointed technical notes are submitted to take quick decisions and interim funding wherever needed.  One can follow a system of their own manner  in  reporting, which  however should match with past reports on similar problem so that when compared they will reveal  uniformity before taking  appropriate  decisions. 

  • This is why the best Supervisors always keep a personalized diary recording day to day events and technical  problems noticed in the day to day work which may have surfaced time and again and how they were addressed. Such dairying will come very handy while reporting technical issues in the most appropriate manner. 
  • Every Supervisor may make it a practice to timely communicate the technical problem that affected productivity  on its first occurrence itself to proper authorities concerned like maintenance department. Always ensure that the details of the technical problem is fully documented with due date and time of their occurrence and all such documents are carefully kept in file. The details in such documents may contain the following: 
  1. The type of problem that occurred.
  2. How frequently the problem recurred.
  3. The details may include date, day and time.
  4. Nature of problem - whether the machine itself malfunctioned or malfunction  occurred due to wrong operational technique of the employee. If so the details. 
  5. Changes in setting, parts replaced  if  any to correct the problem
  6. The names of personnel who attended the problem.
  7. The total time taken to  set right the  problem or improvement made.
  8. Whether it was operational  error, or mischief by some one  or machineries and equipments malfunctioned.
  9.  How did the mishandling occur. 

Tuesday, June 11, 2013

Cadmop - 3

 ......................functions of the Supervisor 
  • Do not be a task master, always be a guide : - The role of a Supervisor is not that of the authoritarian taskmaster. Supervisors are expected to guide their employees and not to micro-manage every movement of him or his activities or tasks while accomplishing the task entrusted to him. Guidance means providing direction, moral support and encouragement as required to carry out the assigned activities and tasks. Additionally, as a guide, Supervisors need to recognize the strengths and weaknesses of employees and suitably tap their strengths to improve weak areas instead of finding fault in each and every step they make. Even if some mistake is committed it should be politely pointed out  in the beginning and one should be hard only to uncorrectable employee.
  • Monitor performance :- Time to time the Supervisors should monitor the performance of the employees in a  suitable manner for smooth functioning in the organization and their progress  be evaluated in periodical intervals for  achieving the end results. Monitoring does not mean shadowing the performance activities of the employees  or to come to some conclusion instantly on his limited performance. The behavioral pattern of employees working under him will be watched and suitably monitored to higher authorities at a suitable time when the supervisor finds it difficult to handle
  • Disciplinary actions :- The first action on the erring employees will be initiated by the Supervisors when all attempts to improve his performance fails. Supervisors are required to carry out disciplinary actions with employees as and when required to ensure positive work environment. In most of the organizations Supervisors are required to review the yearly performance of all of their employees.  
  • Motivating the employees:- Supervisors are not only responsible for taking disciplinary actions alone, but will have to ensure that work unit under him  successfully achieve the targeted goals of the Organization. In this direction the most useful tool available with them is  motivating the employees working under them keeping in mind that their growth depends on the growth of the organization and the Supervisor himself. How do they motivate the employees since they have almost nil  scope in offering some sort of incentive to employees?  
Motivation does not mean extracting more work by offering  inducements or making one to show higher performance for giving  cash incentive, promotion etc.  Supervisors can use a number of motivational techniques some of which are:
  1. Providing positive feedback to the higher management on the achievements of individuals which should also be made known to the employee themselves.
  2. Persuading unwilling workers to work hard for achieving targeted goal  and resort to   adverse reporting only when all efforts to bring the employee on track  failed to yield the desired result.  This should also be done in full knowledge of the employee who may correct himself on knowing the facts fearing administrative action.
  3. Never rush to the higher ups reporting  petty matters and instead sort out issues at unit level to infuse confidence  in the minds of employees working under  him.  
  4. Assigning challenging task to individuals within unit work level for testing their skill and then proper reporting to higher authorities on the performance of those really skilled employees in full knowledge  of the employee himself  who may feel that some one above him is helping him in his career development
  5. Providing guidance, support and parting with  the techniques which they have learnt by (supervisors) experience over the years for better  yield
  6. Keep consulting trusted lots in hour  of crisis and when positive result is achieved out of the discussion, give credit to the employees whose valuable suggestions contributed to the cause and ensure that the fact is made known to the higher authorities in full knowledge of the employee to infuse more confidence on him.
  • Leading the team:-  What leadership qualities  are required for the Supervisor to lead the team for creating  better working  atmosphere ? :- 
  1. Not an yes man always to either Management or the Worker. The facts are to be conveyed to higher Management and as disciplined soldier but their advice be followed unless otherwise such advise according to the Supervisor may bring in negative result. The duty of the Supervisor is to express the true opinion, but remain a committed soldier.
  2. Displaying total commitment to the work.
  3. Strict in work, but humane in other aspects.
  4. Interacting effectively between higher management and the subordinates to sort out misgivings.
  5.  Displaying true values and belief in life to the best extent possible.
  6. Remain neither too close with workmen nor far away from them too. 
  7. Communication only on work to work basis avoiding loose talks and gossiping in work area but at the same time give impression that they are one amongst them. Never allow others to divert their true actions or attention in work.
  8. Never look everything with suspicion as many ignorant slips in performance may have genuine reasons.
  9. Always differentiate the relationship between himself and the management on one side and himself and the workers on the other side.
  10. In the event of an unfortunate incident the supervisor first open up the dialogue with the errant workers either directly or through his trusted friends to convince them that what they are doing is wrong. Till the mission to convince them failed one should not aggravate the situation to go out of hand. be continued