The published articles are meant to primarily educate the students in printing to supplement their knowledge in the field of Printing. These are not simple Glossary of printing terms, but to the extent possible every term has been explained in brief so that it can be of some use to the students who appear in some sort of examinations and interviews.
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in various capacities, a major part in an Security Printing Organization. In order not to waste the printing and paper related knowledge which I gained over years, I decided to keep them in public domain for the reason stated in prepara. Most of the illustrations - over 90% - have been generated by me to explain the terms suitably.
While I am not sure to what extent the published content will help, if the content is going to be of use to some one in some manner, I will be greatly satisfied.
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Friday, November 29, 2013

An analysis on Printing and circulation of Paper Money - 3

Circulation of Paper Money via-a-vise
 Quantum of Paper Money  
printed and processed
-Analysis-

( Written by : N. R. Jayaraman)
 
- 3
Rs 50/-denomination



In the graphs shown above** (1) show the total Volume and Value of notes
printed and issued in a span of 43  years i.e from 1970 to 2013. The
second graph (volume in million pieces) shows the same
trend of issue/ circulation every 10 years

Total quantum of Rs 50/- denomination Bank Notes issued/circulated in 43 years (1970-2013) have been 135875 million pieces. If we keep the first 10 years issue figures as base, then the position of issue/circulation works out as below:

(i) Increase in the issue/circulation by 11 times in the next 10 years i.e 1981-1992

(ii) During 1992-2003 increase in issue/ circulation by nearly 4 times compared to 1981-92 issues

(iii) Marginal decrease in issue/ circulation in the next ten years i.e 2003-2013 to the extent of 31 % compared to previous ten years.

Though the printing and fresh issue of this denomination was higher in the period 1992-2003, the reason for sudden decrease in share of this denominational issue in 2003-2013 is unclear. It could be due to higher percent of circulation in  Rs 100/- deno and Rs 500/- denominations during the said period.

Bank notes to the extent of only 3461^^ million pieces (8.51 billion) of Rs 50/- denomination are in circulation in the year 2012-2013 which works out to 2.54 % of the total notes issued in 43 years (^^Ref:- Database on Indian Economy/ RBI Data Warehouse: Table 159 : Notes and Coins Issued).

Rs 100/-denomination



In the graphs shown above** (1) show the total Volume and Value of notes
printed and issued in a span of 43  years i.e from 1970 to 2013. The
second graph (volume in million pieces) shows the same
trend of issue/ circulation every 10 years

As for Rs 100 /- denomination whose printing has also been discontinued from the year 2005, the total quantum issued/circulated in 43 years (1970-2013) have been 240122.27 million pieces of notes. If we keep the first 10 years issue figures as base, then the position of issue/circulation works out as below:

(i) Increase in the issue/circulation by nearly five times in the next 10 years i.e 1981-1992.

(ii) During 1992-2003 the issue/ circulation of this denomination further increased by nearly 4 times compared to 1981-92 issues.

(iii) Increase in the next ten years i.e 2003-2013 by 1.66 times compared to previous ten years.

Bank notes to the extent of only 14421^^million pieces of Rs 100/- denomination are in circulation in 2012-2013 which works out to 6 % of the total notes issued in 43 years (^^Ref:- Database on Indian Economy/ RBI Data Warehouse: Table 159 : Notes and Coins Issued).

Rs 500/-denomination




In the graphs shown above** (1) show the total Volume and Value of notes
printed and issued in a span of 43  years i.e from 1970 to 2013. The
second graph (volume in million pieces) shows the same
trend of issue/ circulation every 10 years

As for Rs 500 /- denomination whose printing has also been discontinued and re introduced at intervals, the total pieces issued in 43 years (1970-2013) works out to 70852 million pieces of notes. If we keep the first 10 years (1981-1992) issue figures as base, then the position of issue/circulation works out as below as this denomination has not been issued till 1987- 1988:

(i) It was nil  during 1970 to 1981 .

(ii) The issue/ circulation began during 1981-1992.
(iii) During 1992-2003 the issue/ circulation of this denomination has  increased by nearly 74 times compared to 1981-92 issues
(iv) During 2003-2013 the raise in circulation is almost seven times compared to  1992-2003 period.

Bank notes to the extent of only 10719^^million pieces of Rs 500/- denomination are in circulation in 2012-2013 which works out to 15 % of the total notes issued in 26 years. (^^Ref:- Database on Indian Economy/ RBI Data Warehouse: Table 159 : Notes and Coins Issued).

Rs 1000/-denomination


In the graphs shown above** (1) show the total Volume and Value of notes
printed and issued in a span of 43  years i.e from 1970 to 2013. The
second graph (volume in million pieces) shows the same
trend of issue/ circulation every 10 years

As for Rs 1000 /- denomination the total pieces issued in 43 years (1970-2013) have been 19052 million pieces of notes. If we keep the first 20 years (1970-1992) issue figures as base, then the position of issue/circulation works out as below:

(i) It was just total 4.42 million pieces during 1970 to 1992,  and therefore  it   can not be taken as yardstick to correctly compare with succeeding year circulation  .

(ii) In view of the above if we keep the base year for calculation as 1992-2003 the raise in circulation is  almost 70 times  times in the next 10 years i.e 2003-2013.

Now in 2012-2013 Currencies of this denomination remains in circulation to the extent of only 4299^^million pieces works out to mere 22.56 % of the total notes issued/circulated in 21 years (^^Ref:- Database on Indian Economy/ RBI Data Warehouse: Table 159 : Notes and Coins Issued).

Rs 1000 , Rs 5000/- and Rs 10000/-  in circulation prior to independence in limited quantity. In the year 1946 Rs 1000/- and Rs 10000/- denominations were demonized to curb unaccounted money.  Again all the  three denominations  i.e Rs 1000/-, Rs 5000/- and Rs 10000/-  were reintroduced  in the year 1954 put in circulation but again they were demonetized twice in the year  1978. (Ref: Frequently asked questions under Chapter Currency: http://www.rbi.org.in/scripts/FAQ).

In the said three higher denominational Bank Notes,  Rs 1000/- deno was re-introduced in the year 2000.  Prior to issue of Rs 1000/- , a newer denomination in the value of Rs 500/- was introduced in the year 1987-88. Therefore the data has been compiled only from 1970 onwards by not taking into consideration the demonetized issues of Rs 1000/- denomination which was very limited in circulation prior to 1970.

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{** Courtesy :- The Graphic representations shown for Rs 50/-, 100/-, 500/-, to Rs 1000/- denominations have been prepared on the basis of the Data taken from RBI site:- ''Database on Indian Economy/ RBI Data Warehouse: Table 159 : Notes and Coins Issued'' )
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to be continued........3

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